The Future

I’ve been thinking a lot about what to do with this blog now that my DP work has finished. In the final formatting and transfer stage, I learned pretty quickly that transferring from a blog to word processing program is hardly ideal. For my future studies, I will be abandoning this method.

On that note, I will leave this blog up for anyone who wishes to look at my work as inspiration for their own. Keep in mind that these essays are in rough draft form and some changes were made for the final version of my documentation.

In the future, I may have my own website where I will post my final draft of the DP.



Creating a Plan for Living Your Druidism

My DP work passed and I am officially an ADF Dedicant!

Here are some final questions I’ve answered from the WOTY guide:

1. Looking at all the things you’ve done, what was the hardest requirement to you? Was it one you expected? Do you feel that you fully understand the requirement, or is there room for improvement?

Out of all the requirements, I feel like the virtue essays were probably the most difficult. I essentially had to write, in my own words, what each virtue meant to me and having to expound on that for 125 words was particularly challenging. This didn’t surprise me really, and the result of these essays brought many rewards. This requirement gave me a lot of understanding of the virtues. With this awareness of the virtues, I feel like I’ve become a better human being in exploring and applying them to my life.

2. What was the easiest requirement for you? Do you feel that you learned something from it? Describe the value of the requirement in a way that has meaning to you.

The easiest requirement for me were the High Day recaps. They were fairly straightforward in that I recorded what took place in my High Day rituals, but that doesn’t mean I didn’t learn anything from the recaps. In fact, they helped me better communicate my omen interpretations and they also gave me a sense of progress. I can easily tell the progression of my learning from my first recorded High Day ritual to the last. The High Day recaps are incredibly important for this fact and they helped me learn the elements of the ADF COoR. Since the COoR is central to the practice of ADF Druidry, this requirement can’t be understated.

3. Which requirement surprised you the most?

The requirement that surprised me the most was the mental training part of the program. I honestly thought I’d have a pretty rough time completing it, but it turned out to be the gateway to some powerful spiritual experiences. The mental exercises I learned were instrumental in helping me hear the lessons of the Kindreds. I am incredibly grateful for that experience.

4. What things did you learn that you would most like to continue with?

All of it. In fact, I still continue practices that I established while working through the DP. For example, I do daily prayers, weekly devotionals, and a weekly oracle reading. I also try to get out into nature and learn more about it. My personal practice has continued to evolve and I look forward to more study so that I may deepen my practice.

5. Now that you have given your Dedicant Oath before your gods and your community, how do you see yourself living that Oath daily? What sort of things will you do to fulfill the Oath you took?

Let’s break it down by each line of my oath:

1. “I swear to keep the virtues and to be true to my Gods and kin!”

This is most easily accomplished by being aware of the virtues in my everyday activities and attempting to adhere to them at all times. By keeping the virtues, this makes me true to my Gods and kin, while helping me be a better person overall. Part of my morning prayers are a recitation of the nine virtues which brings them into my awareness at the beginning of the day, so that I may start my day off on the right foot.

2. “I swear to care for the Earth as She cares for me and gives me life!”

Caring for the Earth involves being aware of how our actions affect the Earth. This can be done on even the most mundane days by recycling and cleaning up trash that I may find outside. It can also involve simply being aware of the Earth and Her daily currents, like taking a moment while outside to feel the wind on my face and listening to sounds of the birds. While the Earth is all I may see wherever I may go, I think it’s important to slow down and listen to Her so that I may never take Her for granted. In turn, this leads to action in which I consider my everyday impact on the land around me.

3. “I swear to keep the Elder Ways and walk the path of Druidry for the rest of my days!”

Every morning before I leave for work, or before I begin my day, I say a prayer in which I honor and praise the Kindreds. When the High Days come, I mark them with ritual and offerings to the Kindreds. On a weekly basis I perform a devotional to the Kindreds in which I honor and offer to them. I also have a weekly oracle ritual, in which I ask the advice of the Kindreds for the coming week. All of these things are what comprise My Druidry, and this isn’t even counting spontaneous prayer and offerings to certain gods or land wights, as well as the studies I may undertake to get to know the Kindreds better. My walk along the path of Druidry is constant and it gives me great joy to have such a wonderful, continuous relationship with the Kindreds and the land around me. Keeping the Elder Ways also includes the two items above and I consider it all inclusive to my lifestyle. In fact, I couldn’t possibly separate my religion from my everyday life and I couldn’t have found a more fulfilling path in all the years I’ve been seeking. This is how I know that I will keep the ways of Druidry for the rest of my life. It is an oath I’m happy and willing to fulfill.

6. Have you considered starting a Grove (or helping to lead your current one)? Is there a leadership position in a Guild or a SIG that you’re interested in? Would you like to run for an office in ADF?

I have considered starting a grove and it’s something I’ll be looking into more closely later this year. Right now, we just bought a house and will be moving soon, so things are on hold in that respect. As for leadership positions, that is something that I’m not ruling out. ADF is a wonderful organization and I’d love to serve in some capacity in the future. I’m just not sure where I’d like to serve just yet!

7. Where do you see the skills you learned as a Dedicant being the most useful? Will they primarily be useful to you, your community, to ADF, or to other Dedicants?

All of the above! These skills I have learned have been useful for me because they’ve helped me to establish a consistent and fulfilling religious practice, while helping me become a better human being in the process. They are also useful to ADF because I feel like I’m better equipped to contribute to the organization as a whole with this knowledge. These skills could potentially be helpful to my community because I can bring diversity and knowledge to my community, be it environmental, social, or religious. Finally, I believe the skills I have learned to be helpful to other Dedicants because I can provide support to those who have passed, and I can offer advice for those who are still doing the work.

8. What are the next goals you wish to set for yourself, either personally, spiritually, or within ADF?

I’ve got a pretty clear “road map” on what I’d like to do next. I’d like to start working on the GSP around the summer solstice, followed by the potential establishment of a local protogrove. Once I’ve finished the GSP, I’d like to become involved in the Seer’s Guild, and I may start the study course for that guild. My ultimate goal at the moment is to complete the IP. I feel like the GSP will give me a firm foundation and the fact that some of those courses carry over to the IP is a big plus. It is my wish to deepen my religious practice and I feel the IP is one of the best ways to do that. Afterwards, who knows? I’m open to the many opportunities out there and perhaps at that point I may feel like I’m ready to serve ADF on a national level. Of course, if I do end up establishing a protogrove, and it becomes successful, this may change things somewhat. The great part about all of this is that there are so many paths I can take and they are all open to me.

Dedicant Path: Week 52 – “Dedicant Oath ritual and evaluation”

Dedicant Oath ritual

I. Initiating the Rite

  • Musical Signal
    • Ring bell 3 times
  • Opening Prayer
    • “I have come to honor the Kindreds and give my Dedicant Oath, devoting myself to the Elder Ways!”
  • Two Powers Meditation
    • Merge currents and retain power

II. Purification

  • Purify self and altar with stick incense
  • “Hail to Thor, son of Odin, strongest of the Gods. With your might and mane, hallow this place, and keep all ill wights at bay.”
  • Make sign of Thor’s hammer 3 times
  • “Hail, Thor!”

III. Honoring the Earth Mother

  • “Hail, Nerthus! Goddess of the earth and goddess of peace. I pray that you uphold my rite as you uphold the world. Nerthus, accept my offering!”
  • Make offering

IV. Statement of Purpose

  • “Long ago I felt a call to a different way. As I looked up into the cloudy sky of that Samhain night, I felt the spirits move about me and call to my soul. From that point forward, I sought the Pagan pathways. However, even though I had found the path that called to me, I was without direction for many years. Although I felt the presence of the Kindreds, watched the turn of the seasons, I was bereft of practice and did not honor them as I could have. No more!”
  • “Since finding the ways of Druidry, I have offered to the Kindreds and I am now in right relationship with them. They have filled my hearth, my home, and my being. The Kindreds have transformed my life, connecting me to the cosmos, and helping me to live a life that is right. I am awake!”
  • “This day, I come before my hearth, before my ancestors, before the spirits, and before my gods to dedicate myself to the Elder Ways!”

V. (Re)Creating the Cosmos

  • Well: “Hail to the well of Mimir, precious pool of wisdom for which Odin gave his eye for one drink. Hail to the Well of Urd where the Gods hold court and the Norns color the fates of men. Sacred Well, flow within me!”
  • Fire: “Hail to the primordial fires that begat the universe. Hail to the fires that warm our hearth, cook our food, and consume our offerings to the Gods. Sacred fire, burn within me!”
  • Tree: “Hail to Yggdrasil, the World Tree, whose roots and branches extend into all Nine Worlds. On this windswept tree Odin hung for nine nights, screaming, without food and drink, to learn the secrets of the runes. Sacred Tree, grow within me!”
  • Three Realms: “Fire and Ice met in the Yawning gap, and Ymir was born. Odin, Vili, and Ve slew Ymir. From the giant’s blood came the sea, from his skin the earth, and from his skull the sky. Hail to Odin and his brothers for the primordial sacrifice that spawned creation!”

VI. Opening the Gate(s)

  • “Hail to Heimdall, he who sees and hears all, Guardian of the gates of Bifrost. Heimdall, accept my offering!”
  • Make offering.
  • “Heimdall, open the gates so that my words fly to all Nine Worlds. Open the Gates! Open the Gates! Open the Gates!”

VII. Inviting the Three Kindreds

  • Ancestors:
    • “Ancestors, the Mighty Dead, your blood is my blood, and without you I would not walk this earth. Be with me in my rite. Ancestors, accept my offering!”
    • Make offering
  • Land wights:
    • “Land wights, spirits of forest and field, stone and stream, my guides along the forest road. Be with me in my rite. Land wights, accept my offering!”
    • Make offering
  • Deities:
    • “Shining Ones, Gods and Goddesses of the Nine Worlds, Aesir and Vanir. You provide me with wisdom and courage from your shining halls in Asgard. Be with me in my rite. Shining Ones, accept my offering!”
    • Make offering

VIII. Key Offerings

  • Deity of the occasion:
    • “Hail, Odin! Allfather, leader of the Aesir, and ruler of Asgard. You guide me along this path with your wisdom and magic. Through the runes I know you, and through you I know the runes. Be with me in my rite. Odin, accept my offering!”
    • Make offering
  • Praise offerings:
    • “Hail Nehalennia, goddess of safe travel! You hail from the land of my ancestors and have watched over me in my travels. Be with me in my rite. Nehalennia, accept my offering!”
    • Make offering

IX. Prayer of Sacrifice

“A child of the Earth approaches the Sacred Center to swear an oath!

By the Fire’s flickering flame, by the deep Wells of wisdom and fate, by Yggdrasil’s root and branch, may this oath resound in the center of all!
By the roaring Sea around me, the verdant Land beneath me, and the shining Sky above me, may this oath reach all the Realms of Midgard!
In the presence of the Mighty Ancestors, Land Wights green and red, and the Gods and Goddesses of shining Asgard. You receive my love and my offerings and give me many blessings in return!

Hear my oath, Mighty Kindreds!

I swear to keep the virtues and to be true to my Gods and kin!
I swear to care for the Earth as She cares for me and gives me life!
I swear to keep the Elder Ways and walk the path of Druidry for the rest of my days!

Mighty Kindreds! Accept this oath and offering!”

  • Make offering

“By this offering, my oath is sealed.
I rise from the waters of my ancestors, to walk the land of the spirits, and lift my eyes to the Gods.

So be it!”

X. Omen

  • “A gift calls for a gift. Odin, rune master, nine nights you hung for the secrets of the runes. Let the Kindreds speak to me. What blessings do you offer me along my path?”
  • Pull Elder Futhark runes for:
    • Ancestors: Gebo
    • Land Wights: Perthro
    • Deities: Ansuz

XI. Calling (asking) for the Blessings

  • “Three Kindreds pour your blessings into this cup, that I may drink deeply of fair return. Three Kindreds, hallow this cup!”

XII. Hallowing the Blessing

  • Visualize the blessings flowing into the cup and glowing with power
  • Drink

XIII. Affirmation of the Blessing

  • “Hail to the Three Kindreds! May their blessings fill my head, my heart, and my loins!”

XIV. Workings (if any)

  • None

XV. Thanking the Beings

  • “Hail to Odin and Nehalennia! Thank you for being present at this rite. May you depart in peace.”
  • “Hail to the Aesir and Vanir! Thank you for being present at this rite. May you depart in peace.”
  • “Hail to the land wights! Thank you for being present at this rite. May you depart in peace.”
  • “Hail to the Ancestors! Thank you for being present at this rite. May you depart in peace.”

XVI. Closing the Gate(s)

  • “My work is done. Heimdall, keeper of the Bifrost Bridge, now close the gates! Close the gates! Close the gates!”

XVII. Thanking the Earth Mother

  • “Hail to Nerthus, goddess of the Earth. Thank you for being present at this rite. May you depart in peace.”
  • Two Powers meditation
    • Take power and let the earth power go back to the earth, and the sky power back into the sky. Leave a little for yourself if you need to.

XVIII. Closing the Rite

  • “I have made my Dedicant Oath. Now, let me go forth on this path with the blessings of the Kindreds. This rite has ended!”


My Dedicant Oath ritual was performed on February 26th, 2014 at approximately 1:30pm at my home shrine. I performed the ritual as a solitary using the ADF Core Order of Ritual, with my Dedicant Oath as the prayer of sacrifice . Nerthus was the Earth Mother for this ritual and She was offered cornmeal, while Heimdall was my Gatekeeper with an offering of whiskey. For the Three Kindreds, the Ancestors and Gods were offered ale and the land wights were offered bird food. I chose Odin as my deity of the occasion because I have had a growing relationship with the All-Father over the past several months. While He may not be my patron officially, I can certainly see that happening in the future. In light of this, it made sense to have the All-Father be the chief deity of my Dedicant Oath ritual. Odin was offered wine, for in the lore He only drinks wine in Valhalla and I am always honored to fill His cup. For my praise offering, I honored Nehalennia with an apple for her basket. In addition to my Dedicant Oath being made as the main offering in the prayer of sacrifice, I also offered a generous amount of whiskey to seal the oath.

The ritual itself was a very powerful experience, and it helped that I took the day off work to prepare and perform it. Not only did this allow me time to go over the ritual and make sure I had all the offerings I needed, it also gave me time for mental preparation. Prior to the ritual, I took a shower to help cleanse the worries of the day away so that I would be focused. As I started the ritual, the words flowed from me almost effortlessly and my pacing was consistent as each step went by in the core order. It felt so natural and, I daresay, it was as if I was meant to perform this oath ritual. The ritual went so smoothly that I can’t recall a moment where a mistake was made or something occurred that I didn’t consider beforehand. As Heimdall opened the gates, I felt a chill move over me and shortly after inviting and offering to the Kindreds I could feel their presence all around me. When the time came to perform the actual oath, a stillness fell over my mind and surroundings. It was almost as if the world went quiet to listen as I gave my Dedicant Oath.

Much like the ritual, the oath came easily and my words came forth with power. As for the wording of the oath itself, I am very happy with what I had written. It touched on every aspect of my Druidry, from the Three Hallows, the Three Realms, to the Three Kindreds. My oath to keep the virtues, to care for the Earth, and to keep the Elder Ways felt right. It is important to note that this is a lifelong oath. I feel very strongly that the Ways of Druidry are my spiritual home and upholding the lifelong commitment to this path felt like a natural thing to do. This is an oath I take very seriously and I know that it is an oath I will uphold.

For the omen, I asked the Kindreds what blessings they offered me along my path. I drew Gebo for the Ancestors, Perthro for the Land Wights, and Ansuz for the Gods. My interpretation of the omen is that I am blessed with right relationship with the Kindreds. As I offer to them, I receive their blessings and I will continue to do so as long as the offerings continue (Gebo). Because I am in right relationship with the Kindreds, I am blessed with good fortune in which the elements of chance will swing in my favor (Perthro). Another element of the Perthro rune is that I stand at the crossroads of fate, with the blessing to choose from many paths that could be fruitful for me. Finally, I am blessed with the wisdom of the Gods and a new beginning as I start another chapter in the Ways of Druidry (Ansuz). The fact that Ansuz is also the rune of Odin is not lost on me, and this rune also tells me that our relationship will continue to strengthen, which may lead to patronage sometime in the future. The All-Father makes it clear He is here to stay for some time. This was an overwhelmingly positive omen and blessing that made me a bit emotional shortly after drawing the runes. I then took up my drinking horn and drank the blessing, letting it fill and glow within me.

As there was no working planned, I thanked the deities, closed the gates, thanked the Earth Mother, and then ended the rite. Out of all the rituals I have performed through the past year since joining ADF, I am quite certain that this is the best ritual I have done so far. Not only was it smooth in terms of structure, but had a meaningful spiritual element to it that cements my dedication to Druidry. It was fitting end to my Dedicant Path studies and the perfect beginning for the journey ahead.

Dedicant Path: Week 50 – “Final Book Report”

Book review – Hearth Culture


by Snorri Sturluson (Anthony Faulkes translation)

Edda by Snorri Sturluson is a collection of tales concerning the deeds of the Norse gods and goddesses. Most of the stories are contained within the first third of the book titled Gylfaginning (the tricking of Gylfi), and there are also a few stories contained in the second section of the book Skaldskaparmal (The language of poetry). The last section, called Hattatal (list of verse-forms), acts as a primer on the technical aspects of skaldic poetry which Snorri felt the need to preserve. Overall, this work contains the most comprehensive account of the Norse myths, which can be supplemented by the Elder Edda (also known as the Poetic Edda), and numerous other sagas (Faulkes xi).

I would not be true to myself if I didn’t say that I was completely enthralled by the might of the gods that is demonstrated within the Edda. This can be seen in the creation of the world by the slaying of the giant Ymir by Odin and his brothers (Sturluson 12) and no one can doubt the might of Thor as he fished for the Midgard serpent Jormungandr. As Thor tussled with the serpent on the line, he summoned his strength and pushed down so hard that “he forced both feet through the boat and braced them against the sea-bed, and then hauled the serpent up to the gunwale” (Sturluson 47). While the serpent escaped, Thor was able to have a parting shot when he threw his hammer and struck Jormungandr’s head at the bottom of the ocean. (Sturluson 47).

While I am astonished by the power of the gods, I am further moved by their human qualities as well. In the binding of Fenris, the gods were so concerned by the danger that the wolf posed that they were willing to break an oath to make sure he was shackled (Sturluson 27-29). While the gods balked at the idea of placing their hand in his mouth as a gesture of good faith, Tyr bore the sacrifice and lost his hand when Gleipnir held fast. To me this demonstrates that the gods are not perfect beings, as they were willing to break an oath for the sake of safety. Furthermore, the humanness of the gods is seen in the story of the death of Baldr. None of them could fathom such a fate could befall the brightest of all the gods, so when he fell the gods were silent and then “weeping came out, so that none could tell another in words of his grief” (Sturluson 49). This story demonstrates the gods are not exempt from death, and even they grieve at the loss of someone who was dear to them.

Skaldskaparmal begins with the story of the origin of poetry in which Odin acquires the mead of inspiration from the giants (Sturluson 63-64). This seques into the content and forms that make up Norse poetry, with Skaldskaparmal devoted to kennings. Kennings are poetic phrases used in exchange for singular nouns. For example, when saying “sky,” you could also describe it as “Ymir’s skull” (Sturluson 88), or instead of “ship” you could say “wave’s steed” (Sturluson 124). The section after is Hattatal, which is a highly technical chapter that describes the many different techniques that make up Norse poetry.

My favorite part of Edda is, without a doubt, Gylfaginning. If I am to forge a further relationship with my gods, knowing their deeds is a key component in my growing relationship with them. I am amazed and inspired by their tales and I find myself searching for more lore concerning the gods so that I may know them even better. Needless to say, studying the gods’ stories has helped tremendously in connecting with them further. On a side note, in regards to mainstream culture, it is also easy to see the elements in the stories of the Norse gods that have influenced fantasy fiction. Skaldskaparmal, with its comprehensive list of kennings, has motivated me to find uses for them in my own ritual liturgy and prayers. If there is one part of the book that was challenging for me to get through, however, that would be Hattatal. While I praise Snorri Sturluson for preserving the verse-forms of Norse poetry, I had a very difficult time navigating the information because I don’t know too much about the technical side of poetry. After awhile, it became a blur to me and I found myself forging ahead to finish the book rather than absorb the complexities of the verse-forms. Snorri’s Christian influence was also a bit off-putting at times, but I suppose it’s a necessary evil given the amount of lore that is available to me for my own religious and spiritual experience.

For anyone interested in the Norse hearth culture for study and religious practice, the Edda, despite its rough spots, has my highest recommendation. You won’t find a more accessible and reliable source for the Norse myths than this book. It is my fervent hope that it ignites the imagination and solidifies the might and wonder of the gods for others as it has done for me.

Works cited:

Sturluson, Snorri.  Edda.  Trans. Anthony Faulkes.  London: Dent, 1987.  Print.

Dedicant Path: Week 49 – “Final High Day Recap”

High Day: February cross-quarter (Disting)

Date of ritual: February 5th, 2014

I performed my Disting ritual by myself using the ADF COoR. I honored Nerthus as the Earth Mother and Heimdall as the gatekeeper, with the cosmos being establish with Fire, Well, and Tree, as well as Land, Sea, and Sky. Freyr was the deity of the occasion for his role as a fertility god who will quicken the land toward spring and abundance. Since corn is a major crop grown in this area, I offered Freyr corn seeds. My working for this ritual was my own version of the “Charming of the Plough” in which I asked Freyr to bless certain objects of my work and passed them through incense smoke. Unfortunately, I forgot the items I was going to bless (with the exception of my runes) near the beginning of ritual. This distracted me as I tried to think of a way to grab what I needed without breaking the flow of the ritual. This oversight occupied my mind, making my inner work and concentration muddy at best. In the end, I settled by grabbing a pen from my desk nearby and blessed that as my “tool” for writing in the coming year. I had originally intended to grab my keyboard as well, but I didn’t feel like unhooking it from the computer during the ritual. Despite my forgetfulness and focus issues, I was pleased with the ritual overall.

The runes I drew for the omen were Raido for the Ancestors, Gebo for the Land Wights, and Naudhiz for the Deities. My interpretation of the omen was that I am blessed with a good journey, but recognize those that help me on the path (Raido). I am blessed with reciprocity from the Kindreds and I remain in right-relationship with them (Gebo). I am also blessed with lessons learned through hard times and constraint, for it is these challenges that will define me (Naudhiz). Overall, this omen was positive and my offerings were accepted. Even with a “negative” rune such as Naudhiz showing up, I still feel there’s a blessing to be had here in that hardship and constraint build strength of character. This ritual also marks the first full year of High Day rituals that I have performed using the ADF COoR and the first full year I have observed all the High Days in a formal capacity as a Pagan. It’s amazing how much I have grown during the year and I feel like I am getting a good handle on ADF COoR. Most importantly, however, is that through my pious observance of the High Days I feel more connected to the cycles of the Earth and the Kindreds than ever before. I can’t express how happy this makes me.

Dedicant Path: Week 48 – “Final High Day Essay”

High Day: February cross-quarter (February 1st)

Winter has long since settled over the land, and the earth slumbers as the trees stand barren. Yet, as the sun rises in the east each morning, the light comes sooner as the days grow longer and spring lies just beyond the horizon. Among Neo-Pagans and the Celtic hearth culture within ADF, this celebration of the coming light is known as Imbolc. This High Day is a festival of lights, celebrating the coming of the sun with fire in many forms, as was practiced in Europe in the past and present (Cunningham 68). Brigid is often honored as she brings her light of inspiration that quickens the fertility of the spirit, the body, and the Earth (Farrar 62). In the Norse hearth culture, this day is known as Disting and the “Charming of the Plough”, when the tools for planting are blessed and the fields are honored before spring arrives (Our Own Druidry 66). This would make Freyr an ideal deity to honor on this High Day due to his role as a fertility god, and the story of Freyr attempting to woo the giantess Gerd can be retold (Our Own Druidry 66).

For me, the period after Yule and before Disting is very hard time for me. With winter blanketing much of the land, I often find myself feeling the weight of winter in both a physical and spiritual sense. The coming of this High Day is a relief for me and I often find the fire inside me rekindled as I set forth in the new year to continue my spiritual work along with my temporal affairs. This is also a special High Day for me because it was during this time of the year in 2013 that I began my practice of ADF Druidry in earnest. Because of this, I will always associate Disting as a time of new beginnings, when the hope of spring is beginning to dawn.

Works cited:

Ár nDraíocht Féin: A Druid Fellowship.  Our Own Druidry: an introduction to Ár nDraíocht Féin and the Druid Path.  Tucson: ADF Publishing, 2009.  Print

Cunningham, Scott.  Wicca: A Guide For the Solitary Practitioner.  Woodbury: Llewellyn, 1988.  Print.

Farrar, Janet and Stewart Farrar.  Eight Sabbats for Witches. London: Robert Hale, 1981.  Print.